Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Financial System of Kazakhstan

Suleyman Demirel University Course work: Analysis of strengths and weaknesses of financial system in Kazakhstan Done by: Abeu Azamat Economics1 Date______________ Almaty 2010 Introduction Financial relations forms there where are funds of money is. Only with the advent of the state and the regular commodity-money reference there is an economic category the finance. Finance is objectively necessary, their necessity is caused by existence of commodity manufacture, the reference, and also action of the law of cost.The monetary relations developing between the enterprises in their economic activities, the circulation of funds in the course of manufacture mediates. A material basis of the finance is manufacture. Studying of economic structure of any society of the modern state is impossible without the financial system analysis, representing set of financial relations and institutes regulating them. Financial relations represent an important component of the general economic relations inh erent in any public system.Through the financial mechanism the state forms and uses funds of the money resources necessary for performance of its numerous functions in political, economic and social spheres. The financial system covers numerous institutes of public finances which operate in close interaction with credit institutes of different function. Subject of my research is set of the financial and monetary and credit relations demanding the new approach to their regulation in the conditions of transition to market economy.A methodological basis the complex system approach to studying of a problem of reforming of financially-credit system of Republic Kazakhstan in the conditions of transition to market economy makes, applications in these purposes of various concepts of world economic thought on increase of a role of the finance, money and the credit in management of national economy. The financial sector of Kazakhstan is the largest financial sector in Central Asia. It possess es enormous fossil fuel reserves as well as minerals and metals.It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production, as well as developed space infrastructure, which took over all launches to the International Space Station from the Space Shuttle. The mountains in the south are important for apples and walnuts; both species grow wild there. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some military items.The urgency of the given theme can't be exaggerated, after all a financial system, by right, it is considered a basis of bases of any modern state. Many crises of economy are connected with infringement of its functioning. Therefore it is necessary to know all subtleties of its device for maintenance of normal functioning of any country. It is possible to assert that each link of a financial system is its independent element, but this independence is relative in middle the uniform complete.The financial system is a set of various kinds of funds of the financial resources concentrated at the disposal of the state, not financial sector of economy (managing subjects), separate financial institutions and the population (households) for execution of the functions assigned to them, and also for satisfaction of economic and social requirements. The modern world is the world of all-round and all-powerful commodity-money relations. They penetrate internal life of any state and its activity on international scene.In the course of reproduction at different levels, since the enterprise and finishing national economy as a whole, funds of money resources are formed. Thus has no value, in what form money acts: In the form of cash paper signs, roofing felts in the form of credit cards, or on appearing on bank accounts of t he sums in general out of any form. Global financial and economic crisis has shown weaknesses of existing models of financial relations both of universal scale, and at national level. Weaknesses have been revealed in structure of state regulation and in activity of financial institutions.Problems of financial institutions were showed in imperfection and discrepancy of control systems by risks to modern lines and level of accepted risks (both on degree, and on quality of risks), low level of the corporate governance, an insufficient transparency and, as consequence, an inefficiency of the business models, appeared sensitive to negative tendencies. One of distinctive features of the post crisis period is necessity of elimination of the revealed problems of financial sector, correction of the admitted errors and maintenance stable diversified growth.It is necessary to continue work on creation of a modern, steady and competitive financial system of sovereign Kazakhstan. In this work us ed a proceedings of domestic and foreign scientists; rich world’s experience of functioning of financially-credit systems of the countries with the developed and developing market economy, principles of systematization and developments. Main part CONCEPT OF THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM By definition, the financial system is a set of financial relations. By the nature financial relations are distributive, and cost distribution is carried out first of all on subjects.Subjects form monetary funds of a special-purpose designation depending on them play what role a social production: whether are its direct participants, whether will organize insurance protection or carry out state regulation. The role of the subject in a social production represents itself as the first objective criterion of classification of financial relations. According to it in the general set of financial relations large spheres can be allocated: the finance of the enterprises, establishments and the organizations; i nsurance; public finances.In each of the named spheres links are allocated, and the grouping of financial relations is carried out depending on character of activity of the subject, making defining impact on structure and appointment of target monetary funds. This criterion allows to allocate in sphere of the finance of the enterprises (establishments, the organizations) such links, as the finance of the enterprises functioning on the commercial beginnings: the finance of establishments and the organizations which are carrying out noncommercial activity; the finance of public associations.In insurance sphere where character of activity of the subject predetermines specificity of object of insurance, as links act: social insurance, property and personal insurance, responsibility insurance, insurance of enterprise risks. In sphere of public finances – accordingly, the state budget, off-budget funds, the state credit. Spheres and links of financial relations are interconnected, forming in aggregate uniform financial system. Different links of a financial system serve different kinds of financial distribution: intraeconomic – the finance of the enterprises.Inside branch – the finance of the enterprises, complexes, associations, interbranch and between territorial – the state budget, off-budget funds. Each link of a financial system is in turn subdivided on under links according to internal structure of financial interrelations containing in it. So, as a part of the finance of the enterprises functioning on the commercial beginnings, depending on a branch orientation, the finance industrial, agricultural, trading, transport agencies etc. and in dependence o? patterns of ownership – the finance of the state enterprises, cooperative, joint-stock can be isolated, private, etc. Branch and economic features of the enterprises functioning on the commercial beginnings, make essential impact on the organization of financial relations, str ucture of formed monetary funds of a special-purpose designation, an order of their formation and use. THE ANALYSIS OF THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM OF KAZAKHSTANAccording to many experts, Kazakhstan has already overcome the most painful after achievement of financial stabilization peak of structural economic transformations and has achieved appreciable successes, realizing own strategy and, tactics of economic reforms. In Kazakhstan for fifteen years of independence the system of economic and social relations has completely changed. Since the beginning in 1994 of global economic reforms financial stabilization is appreciably reached, privatization of all state ownership approaches end, manufacture lifting was outlined.If in 1993 inflation made over two thousand percent in 2001 it has decreased to 23, 7 %, And today makes about 7-9 %. There was almost full liberalization of the prices and cancellation of the majority of restrictions in foreign trade sphere. In 1996 growth of a total internal product in comparison with previous year on 0, 5 % has been for the first time in recent years provided. The rate of refinancing of National Bank of the Republic Kazakhstan, reaching in the middle of 1994 450-480 %, has decreased more than in 20 times. Carrying out of a rational policy of the State expenditure has provided decrease in a shortage level of the budget.In turn, it has allowed to put the strong base of maintenance of financial stabilization of economy: real preconditions of attraction of the investments, promoting moderate economic growth, lifting and structural reorganization of national economy and improvement on this basis of quality of life of the population are created. One of the basic sections of the governmental program on deepening of reforms for 1996-1998 was reforming of a control system by financial resources of the country and its adaptation to market conditions.Thereupon, last years efforts of the government have been directed first of all on rationalizati on of budgetary expenses, strengthening of financial discipline, creation of the real proprietor and stimulation of attraction of investments into development of economy of republic, perfection of interbudgetary relations and formation of the effective mechanism of management by the state external and internal debt, strengthening and development of the market of the state securities and other tools of a market infrastructure.Despite complexity of an economic situation, last years from the republican budget were allocated considerable means for support of domestic commodity producers, sanitation and rehabilitation of the state enterprises, financing of investment and social projects, objects of small and average business. In particular, only in 199? to year on these purposes it is directed over 15 % of budgetary funds, or 26,9 billion tenge, including on agriculture development – 9,8 billion tenge, or 91,4 % to the forecast.Credits to Eximbank for financing of investment proje cts have made 3,6 billion tenge, or 99,5 % to the plan, and Rehabilitation bank for carrying out of procedures on the insolvent enterprises – 5,8 billion tenge, or 97,1 % to the plan. For the purpose of attraction of the foreign capital for expansion of manufacture and acquisition of skills on marketing and management per 1995 1996 transfer of some the large enterprises black and nonferrous metallurgy, chemical branch to foreign investors was carried out.It is possible to criticize the government for these measures as nobody is insured from errors in business such extremely difficult and absolutely new to us, but the fact remains somehow, of course. By these enterprises only for 1996 it is made production more than on 190 billion tenge that makes almost 28 % from industrial output total amount. In comparison with the corresponding period of 1995 (on 6 %), hire ready (on 7 %), copper refined (in 1,4 times), magnesium and magnesian alloys (in 1,5 times), lead steel manufacture has increased in a concentrate (on 5,8 %), alumina (on 5,8 %).Manufacture of iron ore and pig-iron has increased also. But the most important thing – here was possible to keep employment, to avoid large social conflicts and measures on strengthening of control over tax revenues from these enterprises are now undertaken. A key problem of the government there is a creation of the real proprietor that will allow to expand profitable base of the budget. In 1996 it is considerable Rates of carrying out of privatization according to separate individual projects were accelerated. Now almost all large enterprises is in private hands.At the given stage the big work on end of privatization of objects under individual projects is spent. At the same time, as well as in other countries with transitive economy, development of budgetary sphere during the last years at us restrained decrease in level of public revenues, as consequence of the most severe crisis and high inflation in previous years, deterioration of a financial condition and financial discipline, first of all, at the state enterprises, weak tax administration and complexities with the taxation of a growing private sector.For example, incomes of the state budget to gross national product level have decreased from 22,3 % and 1993 to 16,9 % in 1996, including tax revenues from 15,6 % to 11 % to gross national product. The basic share of tax revenues in 1996 has been provided at the expense of taxes from consumers – 40,7 % to a total sum of taxes. In 1997 budget incomes will make 15,3 % to gross national product, including tax – 11,7 %, per 1998 accordingly – 16,4 % and 12,2 % to gross national product level.For the decision of the large problems concerning the general policy in the field of the State expenditure, in 1996 there have been begun large-scale reforms: on optimization of a network and structure of social sphere, reorganization of system of the central and local executive powe rs, reforming of housing and communal services, social protection and population provision of pensions. On realization pension reform in 1997 it has been listed 36 billion tenge to State payable center from the state budget.For 1999 the budgeted deficit at a rate of 5,5 % to gross national product as a result of granting of transfers from the budget to the Pension fund on 52 billion tenge and payment of social benefits for 23 billion tenge was put. Thus, the budgetary policy gets even more social orientation. Formation, public health services, social insurance and maintenance will be priority directions of an expenditure of public funds. As a whole, the share of expenses on social programs under the budget project for 1998 has made 61,5 % of all expenses of the state.For the decision of social problems of republic in 1997 the Republic Kazakhstan government had been undertook serious steps on strengthening of a profitable part of the state budget. The basic directions in the field we re strengthening of control over receipts of taxes and work with separate tax bearers, perfection of methods of administration behind taxation, modernization and a computerization of tax services of republic. However these measures haven't given fast effect and in 2000 financial possibilities of the state budget have been limited.Thereupon, the basic accent in the budgetary policy of this year has been directed on more efficient control state ownership, rational use of public finances, strengthening of control over a target expenditure of means of tax bearers. Work in this direction will be constantly spent and regularly. Despite additional loading on the state budget in connection with reforming of system of provision of pensions and occurrence of powerful expenses on state debt service, the government has allocated in the budget of 2000 considerably a great sum for investment programs, than in previous years.If in 1997 budgetary investments were provided at a rate of 19,9 billion tenge in the following from the budget to priority investment projects at the expense of external sources it has been directed 34 billion tenge, or about 400 mln. dollars that, in turn, stimulated considerable growth of solvent demand and lifting of economy of republic. The basic priorities of the state investment program are development of a social and industrial infrastructure, and also housing construction activization. the list of investment projects projects on education system rehabilitation, development of a high system, reconstruction of irrigational systems and water supply systems enter. Financing of projects is provided at the expense of means of the state budget, and also at the expense of the means given by foreign donors. Since 1998, the Ministry of Finance refuses direct credits of National Bank. For budgeted deficit financing in 1998 noninflationary sources and market methods of loan in the internal and external financial markets have been used only.In 1997 it has no t been admitted any default under the state financial obligations that has seriously strengthened image of our country as the reliable partner in the international affairs. For the first time in history Kazakhstan in November, 1996 to it the international credit rating which has allowed already in month to carry out confident debut issue of Eurobonds in the sum of 200 mln. Dollars of the USA in the world financial markets is appropriated.On level of attraction of direct foreign investments per capita the republic is included confidently into the first five the CIS is central – also the East Europe countries, and also. Cumulative inflow of direct foreign investments, according to the European bank of reconstruction and development, in economy of Kazakhstan during 1989-1996 has made 2761 mln. dollars of the USA. Unfortunately, in the near future it is not necessary to rely on internal resources. The advanced experience, new technologies and a know-how, administrative and market ing skills are necessary.That is why we apply many efforts for creation of a favorable investment climate in the country. It is possible to underline that Kazakhstan has now perfect enough legislative and institutional base for effective attraction and use of foreign investments. We have today the most liberal tax mode in comparison with other states CIS, the limited number of taxes – their only 11 against 45, existing in old tax laws. Important point is that reforms in republic moving forward. By estimations of the World Bank, Kazakhstan is the initiator and the leader among the CIS countries in carrying out of reforms.Involving investments into national economy, we solve also one more important social problem – preservation of employment of the population. It is rather actual for Kazakhstan as in 1996 by statistical bodies of republic it is recognized by officially jobless – 391,7 thousand people or 4,1 % from economically active population. One more factor is structural reforms. According to the government plans, all radical reforms should be finished the next two years. The transit status of the Kazakhstan economy, moving from a management system to market, will pass in the category more settled.For this purpose there are all conditions. It and legislative base of the market, both investment packages, and a way of the organization budgetary, tax, currency and an anti-inflationary policy, and, at last, a way of the organization of relations not only in economy, but also in a society. In republic strong enough reserve for steady growth of economy in the future is created. Results The Kazakhstan's financial system is characterized by high enough level of market concentration. Especially it concerns bank and pension sectors of the country.Presence of similar tendencies and a consequence of present crisis for financial sector of Kazakhstan have once again confirmed the traditional theory when risks of the largest financial institutions put system pressure upon a condition of all financial system. In these conditions one of key priorities of post crisis development will be competition stimulation in financial sector. It provides as a direct measure necessity of gradual increase in the minimum size of the capital first of all banks.Integration and consolidation or their reorganization in other kinds of financial institutions will promote growth of a market share of the average banks capable on mass products to render a due competition to big banks. Moreover, the most successful condition of development of banks and bank products is their competitiveness. It also is important from a position of expansion of coverage and population access to as much as possible wide list of bank services, especially in regions.It is necessary to pay attention to creation of conditions for expansion of possibilities of banks on granting of modern retail financial services, first of all the most demanded today the population of payment serv ices, by formation of a corresponding interbank infrastructure. Within the limits of this problem it is necessary to direct the basic efforts on integration of the components of an infrastructure of retail payments separated and poorly interconnected now with a view of achievement of increase of efficiency and technological compatibility.In case of need it is necessary to consider the problem on restriction of foreign participation in financial sector at a rate of no more than 50 % from a cumulative authorized capital stock separately on each segment of financial sector. With a view of development of a diligent competition in all segments of the financial market reduction of participation of the state to its full exit will be provided at achievement of sufficient level of a competition. ConclusionThe financial system is system of integration type, is characterized by a close connection of elements (subsystems) entering into it and that any of its subsystems can't exist independently : the finance, on the one hand, expresses a part of relations of production and consequently acts as an element of system of these relations, with another — represents the system consisting of interconnected elements, having the functional properties. In the finance it is possible to name as functional subsystems such, as tax, budgetary, financial plans (forecasts), budget financing, financial indicators, etc.Besides functional criterion of classification of a financial system classification by a sign of subjects of the finance (participating in financial relations) is applied that allows to differentiate a financial system on links. Links as the coordinated number of classification contain elements of the higher category: financial relations, the financial funds, the operating device. Such property of ordering gives to a financial system integration character. In market relations economy functioning commodity-money relations are regulated by the state in ready smaller degree . The basic regulators — supply and demand of the goods, works, services.Out of commodity relations the finance can't exist. Only at an exchange of the made goods, services, their realization for certain money's worth at commodity producers the monetary gain is formed. From a gain from realization of production, works, services corresponding funds of money resources which go on compensation of the spent means of production, payment should be allocated. And cost of an additional product should be distributed on the parts satisfying to economic interests of all participants of a social production, industrial spheres, invalid members of a society, for creation of insurance funds and resources.Large financial investments are necessary for realization of reorientation of economy, therefore important problems are research of sources of structural transformations, parity definition between means of the state in the form of budgetary appropriations and own means of the enterprises. T he state budget as the tool of management of economy has the integrated influence on a social production as financial document, as the economic lever; and as stimulus. The state budget is the central link of a financial system.In it find interrelation various types of income, expenses and the state loans. The profitable part contains the list of arriving means, and account – unites all kinds of made loans. I. e. the state budget is an economic category which expresses relations of production in the monetary form, arising between the state and other participants of a social production in the course of distribution and re-distribution of cost of a public product. The state budget is the tool of realization of a state policy and the basic source of money resources for realization of the planned programs.Formation of a profitable part has now many problems, therefore the frequent updating of tax laws aggravating position of the enterprises, negatively influence manufacture proces s, so, on a state budget condition. An important question at state budget drawing up is directions of an expenditure of the budgetary funds, connected with carrying out of a financially-budgetary policy. At level of micro-economics the financial system structure is made by the primary finance – at the enterprises and in house economy.Their financial activity includes two moments: formation of money resources (that occurs by means of initial distribution of incomes) and an expenditure of such means. Incomes and expenses are balanced counterbalanced) as follows. The condition of the finance is reflected in the enterprises in the account of profits and losses (expenses). In housekeeping the received incomes (from use of factors of manufacture) are compared with expenses (expenses for current consumption and savings).Primary finance at macroeconomic level forms base of the secondary finance of the state. They are formed as a result of the subsequent distribution (or redistributio ns) incomes mainly by means of taxes. Taxes – obligatory payments of the enterprises and the population which the state raises taking into account size of primary incomes. Public finance plays an important role in growth of the state consumption which creates additional demand, expands home market. In the end it would be desirable to draw personal conclusions on the given work: The main problem in financial sphere, in my opinion, consists that quantitative growth of a profitable part of the budget of Kazakhstan and all other important financial indicators is reached at the expense of falling of a course of tenge in relation to dollar and at the expense of incomes of the oil-extracting industry that can lead to deep economic recession as all financial and economic system depends on the quotation of the given raw materials in the world market; – In Kazakhstan still and the system of crediting of small-scale business isn't developed.The given sphere of economy is very imp ortant in market economy as on an example of the developed countries it is visible that it makes gross national product most part. Agriculture after disorder of the USSR it has appeared in a difficult situation, therefore a priority problem of the state at present consists in crediting through banks of the second level of the given branch. – In Kazakhstan development of such important financial tools as the credit, the deposit and leasing has already begun.In the conditions of market economy their role consists in acceleration of formation of seed capital that is very important in Kazakhstan where shortage in investments is felt. – Financial control in Kazakhstan is carried out by financial police and the Ministry of Finance. At present the is standard-legal base concerning financial relations is still reformed, but it is enough already developed positions for regulation of financial processes in Kazakhstan. – For today sharply there is a question on advantage o f the state budget.It speaks about badly thought over strategy of an expenditure of means. – Besides, despite repeated increases of a salary to workers of budgetary sphere, in our republic differentiation of monetary incomes of the population is still strong. Settlement of this question in the future can lead to increase in tax revenues in budget of Kazakhstan. Priority problem of Republic Kazakhstan for today is, in my opinion, settlement of the above-named problems. References 1. , , 24. 4. 95 ? 2235  «? ? ?  ». 2. ? 355-1 31. 03. 99  «? ? ? , ,  «? ? ?  » ? 2235 24. 04. 95 ». 3. ? 357-1 01. 04. 00 â€Å"? †. 4. ? 359-1 01. 04. 00 â€Å"? ? ? â€Å"? 2001 †. 5. ?. ?. , (1997), , () 6. ?. ?. , (1996), , () 7. ?. ? (1998), , () 8. ?. ?. (1998), , () 9. ?. ?. (1997), , () 10. ?. ?. , ?. ?. ,(1998), , () 11. ?. ?.. ?. ?. , (1998), . , (, -?) 12. . 13. 2030

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