Monday, December 2, 2019
Organizational Behavior and Management
Introduction Directorial behaviour is the study that investigates the blow on persons and groups behaviour in companies undergoing change. This is very important because the resulting knowledge is used to improve the effectiveness of an organization during change (Martin, 2010). Organizational change on the other hand, is the modification in the ranks in an organization.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Organizational Behavior and Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Change is inevitable since organizations operate on open systems which interacting with the dynamic external environment. In the following paragraphs, the themes and statements in the Ã¢â¬Å"Eight StagesÃ¢â¬ in KotterÃ¢â¬â¢s book Ã¢â¬Å"Leading ChangeÃ¢â¬ will be compared and contrasted with specific concepts discussed in the Ivancevich textbook. Stage 1: Establishing a Sense of Urgency Kotter speculates that for change to occur, 7 6% of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s population needs to embrace change for it to happen. If the whole company is convinced about the need for change, the easier it will be to implement it (Kotter, 1996). One way of creating a sense of agency, is having an honest and convincing dialogues; especially on the market trends and competition activities. The big idea here is that if many employees are involved in the change, the urgency to implement will be fuelled by the employees themselves. Likewise, Ivancevich points out that motivating the employees is important to initiate change. This is because if some employees are motivated, they are bound to motivate their mates (Ivancevich, 2010). When employees talk about the impending change, they will be actually be promoting it. A proper channel should be chosen for communicating matters related to the impending change. This will make sure that all aspects of the change are understood and avoid the spread of wrong information in form of rumours. Wrong information has the potential of creating unrest and this should be avoided. Step Two: Unite a Powerful alliance In order to convince employees that change is crucial, a strong leadership and visible support from the directors should be established. A coalition of professionals from different disciplines should lead the change. Some of these leaders would be needed for their expertise, status and political influence (Kotter, 1996).Advertising Looking for term paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Once the leaders in the organization have been identified, they should be urged to be fully committed up to the emotional level. The coalition formed should then work as a team so as to balance out their weaknesses. This is very important since individuals from different disciplines are bound to disagree and have shortcomings. However, Ivancevich points out the need of recognizing the impact of an informal orga nization in implementing change. There is need to use informal leaders to help initiate change, since formal organizations are usually resistant to change. Communication is much widespread and free in an informal setting than in a formal one. This means that people will be aware of the change in a more casual way and easily adapt to it. Also, communication channels in a formal setting are slower and usually appear dictatorial. On the other hand, an informal way is more welcomed. Step Three: Create a Vision for Change The third step in effecting change, involves setting of a clear vision which can help everyone in the organization understand why and how the change is needed and implemented. The management must ensure that everybody in the organization understands everything regarding the impending change. People tend to accept directives as long as they understand them; therefore proper vision statement is vital for change (Kotter, 1996). In this step, the values that are vital to th e change are determined and a short summary that sets out the future of the organization is developed. Also, everyone in the organization should understand the methods needed to execute the vision created. Ivancevich supports this stage since he emphasizes on the need to have a clearly set vision, mission and plan for change to be successful. This is important as people work best when they know what is expected of them. Step Four: Converse the idea After the mission has been set, it needs to be spread in a very influential way. Since there are usually many messages communicated daily in an organization, the vision of the change has to be communicated in a way that is bound to leave an impact. Therefore, the change vision should be stated powerfully and frequently.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Organizational Behavior and Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It should also be embedded somewhere ever ybody in the corporation has a high chance of reading it (Kotter, 1996). During meetings, the change leaders should mention the vision or at any other suitable time. Additionally, the vision should be the basis of making the current decisions and solving the present problems. By keeping the vision fresh on everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s minds; it will be a reminder of how to proceed with the current duties. Most importantly, the leaders should be the role model when it comes to adopting change. Ivancevich addresses this issue on his theme of communication. Step Five: Removal of Resistance KotterÃ¢â¬â¢s fifth step in organizational change, points out to the need to remove opposition to transformation. If most of the employees have already embraced change, the few resisting should be eliminated for change to proceed smoothly. It is important for the leaders to identify individuals who are embracing change and those who are not. Once they are identified, the leaders should do their best to convin ce them on the importance of change. If they are still resistance, they should be let go. Rewarding individuals embracing change can be used to encourage the resistant to follow suite. Ivancevich outlines reasons of resisting change: certain employees usually see a change as a form of the bosses to benefit themselves. Others resist simply because there are uncertainties surrounding the whole issue of change. Therefore, due to fear and selfishness, they oppose change. Ivancevich also recommends that the individuals resisting change to be enlightened on the benefits of the change. One of the differences between Ivancevich and Kotter is that Ivancevich recommends the use of force to ensure that change is implemented. Ivancevich therefore, partially supports this stage. However, both of them agree that resistance should be uprooted. Step Six: Create Short-term Wins Success is the best motivator, and therefore employees should be given a chance to celebrate every success in implementing change. Short-term goals in the change process should be set with the aim of achieving the greater change (Kotter, 1996). The goals that are reasonably achievable should be evaluated to see if everything is going according to the plan (Pitts, 2006).Advertising Looking for term paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, by observing sure-fire projects that will not receive any strong critics or expensive, leaders will be able to asses the success rate of the change. Also, they will be able to predict the speed of implementing rate and its efficiency in operation (Kotter, 1996). Finally they will be able to analyze the potential pros and cons of the intended change. If the early targets do not succeed, the entire change process can easily be shattered. In comparison, Ivancevich states that employees like being rewarded for work well done. This is achieved if targets are well set and rewards, either in verbal form or promotions, are given to those contributing to change (Martin, 2010). Step Seven: Capitalizing on the Change Kotter reasons that a lot of change programmes are unsuccessful because triumph is announced prematurely. Quick wins are only the beginning of what needs to be done, consequently, after every win, it is wise to analyze what went right and what can be worked on as far as the next set targets are concerned. To continue building on the momentum already achieved and to keep ideas fresh, new change agents and leaders in change coalition will be needed (Kotter, 1996). In support of this step, Ivancevich points to individuals who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility of managing change activities; they can be managers or employees. Step Eight: Attaching the Changes in the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Traditions At last, to make any change solid, it should be a part of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s main business. Because company culture often dictates its activities, the values behind the change vision must be noticeable in the daily work. As a result, efforts to guarantee that the change is experienced in each and every aspect of the organization should be made. This is bound to bring about change in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture (Kotter, 1996). Ivancevich describes culture as the manner things are done around a certain society. Therefore if change is incorporated in the company culture, it is likely to stick and be accepted as a norm. References Ivancevich, K. (2010). Organizational Behaviour and Management. Boston: Harvard. Kotter, A. (1996). Leading Change. New York: Harvard Business School Publishing. Martin, J. (2010). Business and Economics. New York: Macmillan. Pitts, J. (2006). The Effects Of Managerial Communication and Justice Perceptions. Seattle: Yellowstone. This term paper on Organizational Behavior and Management was written and submitted by user Jovani S. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.